John I. Gallin, MD
Director, NIH Clinical Center
BA, Amherst College, cum laude
MD, Cornell University Medical College
Dr. John Gallin was appointed director of the NIH Clinical Center in 1994. The Clinical Center serves the clinical research needs of 17 NIH institutes and is the largest hospital in the world totally dedicated to clinical research. During his tenure, Dr. Gallin has overseen the design and construction of a new research hospital for the Clinical Center, the Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, which opened to patients in 2005; the establishment of a new curriculum for clinical research training now offered globally; and development of new information systems for biomedical translational and clinical research. In 2011, under Dr. Gallin’s leadership, the Clinical Center received the Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award.
While serving as Clinical Center director, Dr. Gallin has continued to be an active clinician and researcher. His primary research interest is in a rare hereditary immune disorder, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). His laboratory described the genetic basis for several forms of CGD and has done pioneering research that has reduced life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections in CGD patients.
A New York native, Dr. Gallin attended public school in New Rochelle, New York; graduated cum laude from Amherst College; and earned an MD degree at Cornell University Medical College. After a medical internship and residency at New York University's Bellevue Hospital, he received postdoctoral training in basic and clinical research in infectious diseases at NIH from 1971 to 1974. He then went back to New York University’s Bellevue Hospital as senior chief medical resident from 1974-1975 before returning to NIH.
In 1985, Dr. Gallin began a nine-year period as scientific director for intramural research activities at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Gallin was the founding chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Host Defenses, served as chief of the laboratory for 12 years, and continues as chief of the lab's clinical pathophysiology section.
He has published more than 325 articles in scientific journals and has edited two textbooks – “Inflammation, Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates” (Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 1999, now in 3rd edition) and "Principles and Practice of Clinical Research" (Academic Press, now in 3rd edition, 2012).
Dr. Gallin is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, and he is a Master of the American College of Physicians.
Selected Honors and Awards
American College of Physicians' Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award, 2006; HHS Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service, 2006; Society for Leukocyte Biology Marie T. Bonazinga Life Time Achievement Award, 2002; Physician Executive of the Year, U.S. Public Health Service, 2001; NIH G. Burroughs Mider Lectureship, 1996; elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, 1996; Surgeon General's Exemplary Service Medal, 1993; Distinguished Service Medal, U.S. Public Health Service, 1992; USPHS Award for Orphan Product Development, 1991; Jeffrey Modell Foundation Life Time Achievement Award, 1990; Squibb Award, Infectious Diseases Society of America, 1987; American Federation for Clinical Research Award for Clinical Research, 1984
Gallin, J. I., Ognibene, F.P. Principles and Practice of Clinical Research, Third Edition. New York, Academic Press 2012.
Gallin, J. I., Ognibene, F.P. Principles and Practice of Clinical Research, Second Edition. New York, Academic Press 2007.
Gallin, J. I. Principles and Practice of Clinical Research. New York, Academic Press 2002.
Gallin, J. I., Snyderman, R., Haynes B F., Nathan C., Fearon D.T. Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates, 3rd Edition. New York, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 1999.
Metcalf, J. A., Gallin, J. I., Nauseef, W. M. and Root, R. K. Laboratory Manual of Neutrophil Function. New York, Raven Press, Ltd. 1986.
Gallin, J. I. and Quie, P. G. Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. New York, Raven Press, Ltd. 1978.
Gallin, J. I. Neutrophil specific granules: A fuse that ignites the inflammatory response. Clin. Res. 32:320-328, 1984.
Malech, H. L. and Gallin, J. I.: Neutrophils in human diseases. New Eng. J. Med., 317:687-694, 1987.
Gallin, J. I.: Interferon Gamma in the Management of Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Rev. Infec. Dis. 13:973-978, 1991.
Lekstrom-Himes, J.A. and Gallin, J.I. Immunodeficiency diseases caused by defects in phagocytes. New England J. Med., 343 (23); 1703-1714, 2001.
Malech, H. L., Root, R. K. and Gallin, J. I.: Structural analysis of human neutrophil migration: Centriole, microtubule and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis. J. Cell Biol. 75:666-693, 1977.
Gallin, E. K. and Gallin, J. I.: Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages: Induction of transmembrane potential changes. J. Cell Biol. 75:277-289, 1977.
Wright, D. G. and Gallin, J. I. Secretory responses of human neutrophils: Exocytosis of specific (secondary) granules by human neutrophils during adherence in vitro and during exudation in vivo. J. Immunol. 123:285-294, 1979.
Gallin, J. I. Degranulating stimuli decrease the negative surface charge and increase the adhesiveness of human neutrophils. J. Clin. Invest. 65:298-306, 1980.
Sechler, J.M.G., Malech, H. L., White, C.J. and Gallin, J. I.: Recombinant human interferon- reconstitutes defective phagocyte function in patients with chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 85:4874-4878, 1988.
Gallin, J.I. and Malech, H.L.; Role of the neutrophil in host defense and inflammation. In: The Proceedings of the Symposium on Pentoxifylline and Leukocyte Function. Held in Key Biscayne, Florida, November 30, 1987. Eds: Novick, W. and Mandell, G. pp 1-17, 1988.
Nunoi, H., Rotrosen, D., Gallin, J. I., and Malech, H. L.: Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors. Science. 242:1298-1300, 1988.
Gallin, J. I., Sechler, J.M.G., and Malech, H. L.: Reconstitution of defective phagocyte function in chronic granulomatous disease of childhood with recombinant human interferon-g. Trans. Assoc. Amer. Phys. 101:12-17, 1988.
Lomax, K. J., Leto, T. L., Nunoi, H., Gallin, J. I. and Malech, H. L.: Recombinant 47-kD cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in chronic granulomatous disease. Science, 245:409-412, 1989.
Leto, T. L., Lomax, K. J., Volpp, B. D., Nunoi, H., Sechler, J. M. G., Nauseef, W.M., Clark, R. A., Gallin, J. I., and Malech, H. L.: Cloning of a 67K neutrophil oxidase factor with similarity to a noncatalytic region of p60c-src. Science. 248:727-730, 1990
Gallin, J. I., Malech, H. L., Melnick, D. A., et al: A controlled trial of interferon gamma to prevent infection in chronic granulomatous disease. The international chronic granulomatous disease cooperative study group. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:509-516, 1991.
Kuhns, D. B., DeCarlo, E., Hawk, D. M. and Gallin, J. I.: Dynamics of the cellular and humoral components of the inflammatory response elicited in skin blisters in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 89: 1734-1740, 1992.
Holland, S. M., Eisenstein, E. M., Kuhns, D. B., Turner, M. L., Fleisher, T. A., Strober, W., Gallin, J. I.: Treatment of refractory disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection with interferon-gamma: A preliminary report. New Eng J. Med. 330:1348-1355. 1994.
Kuhns, D.B. and Gallin, J.I. Increased cell-associated Il-8 in human exudative and A23187-treated peripheral blood neutrophils. J. Immunol. 154: 6556-6562, 1995.
Jackson, S.H., Gallin, J.I., Holland, S.H. The p47phox mouse knock-out model chronic granulomatous disease. J. Exp. Med. 182:751-758, 1995.
Malech, H.L., Maples, P.B., et al and Gallin, J.I., Prolonged production of NADPH oxidase-corrected granulocytes after gene therapy of chronic granulomatous disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 94:12133-12138, 1997.
Lekstrom-Himes, J.A., Dorman, S.E., Kopar, P., Holland, S.M., Gallin, J.I. Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency results from a novel mutation with loss of function of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer protein e. J. Exp. Med., 189:1847-1852, 1999.
Gallin, J.I., Alling, D.W., Malech H.L. and others. Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease. N. Eng. J. Med. 348: 2416-2422. 2003.
Medvedev, A.E., Lentschat, A., Kuhns, D.B., Blanco, J.C.G., Salkowski, C., Zhang, S., Arditi, M., Gallin, J.I. and Vogel, S.N. Distinct Mutations in IRAK-4 Confer Hyporesponsiveness to Lipopolysaccharide and Interleukin-1 in a Patient with Recurrent Bacterial Infections. J. Exp. Med., 198 (4): 521-531. 2003.
Lekstrom-Himes, J.A., Kuhns, D.B., Alvord, W.G., and Gallin, J.I. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil IL-8 Production by Hydrogen Peroxide and Dysregulation in Chronic Granulomatous Disease. J. Immun., 174: 411-417. 2005
Kuhns, D.B., Alvord, W.G., Heller, T., Feld, J.J., Pike, K.M., Marciano, B.E., Uzel, G., DeRavin, S.S., Priel, D.A., Soule, B.P., Zarember, K.A., Malech, H.L., Holland, S.M., Gallin, .JI. Residual NADPH oxidase and survival in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med. 363(27):2600-10. 2010.
Gallin J.I. The NIH Clinical Center and the future of clinical research. Nat Med. 17(10):1221-3. 2011.