NIH Associate Director for Clinical Research & Chief Scientific Officer of the NIH Clinical Center

John I. Gallin, MD

Biosketch

Dr. John Gallin serves as NIH's associate director for clinical research and chief scientific officer of the NIH Clinical Center. Dr. Gallin was the director of the NIH Clinical Center from 1994 to 2017.The Clinical Center serves the research needs of 17 NIH institutes and is the largest hospital in the world totally dedicated to clinical research. During his tenure as director of the Clinical Center, Dr. Gallin oversaw the design and construction of a new research hospital for the Clinical Center, the Mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, which opened to patients in 2005; the establishment of a new curriculum for clinical research training now offered globally; and development of new information systems for biomedical translational  and clinical research. In 2011, under Dr. Gallin's leadership, the Clinical Center received the Lasker~Bloomberg Public Service Award

Dr. Gallin has continued to be an active clinician and researcher. His primary research interest is in a rare hereditary immune disorder, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). His laboratory described the genetic basis for several forms of CGD and has done pioneering research that has reduced life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections in patients with CGD. 

A New York native, Dr. Gallin attended public school in New Rochelle, New York; graduated cum laude from Amherst College; and earned an MD degree at Cornell University Medical College. After a medical internship and residency at New York University's Bellevue Hospital, he received postdoctoral training in basic and clinical research in infectious diseases at NIH from 1971 to 1974. He then went back to New York University’s Bellevue Hospital as senior chief medical resident from 1974-1975 before returning to NIH.

In 1985, Dr. Gallin began a nine-year period as scientific director for intramural research activities at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). Dr. Gallin was the founding chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Host Defenses, served as chief of the laboratory for 12 years, and continues as chief of the lab's clinical pathophysiology section.

He has published more than 355 articles in scientific journals and has edited two textbooks – “Inflammation, Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates” (Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 1999, now in 3rd edition) and "Principles and Practice of Clinical Research" (Academic Press, now in 3rd edition, 2012).

Dr. Gallin is a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, the National Academy of Medicine, and he is a Master of the American College of Physicians.

Selected Honors and Awards

Abbey Rare Voice Award, Every Life Foundation for Rare Diseases, 2016; American College of Physicians' Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Foundation Award, 2006; HHS Secretary's Award for Distinguished Service, 2006; Society for Leukocyte Biology Marie T. Bonazinga Life Time Achievement Award, 2002; Physician Executive of the Year, U.S. Public Health Service, 2001; NIH G. Burroughs Mider Lectureship, 1996; elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, 1996; Surgeon General's Exemplary Service Medal, 1993; Distinguished Service Medal, U.S. Public Health Service, 1992; USPHS Award for Orphan Product Development, 1991; Jeffrey Modell Foundation Life Time Achievement Award, 1990; Squibb Award, Infectious Diseases Society of America, 1987; American Federation for Clinical Research Award for Clinical Research, 1984

Selected Publications

BOOKS

Gallin, J. I., Ognibene, F.P. Principles and Practice of Clinical Research, Third Edition. New York, Academic Press 2012.

Gallin, J. I., Snyderman, R., Haynes B F., Nathan C., Fearon D.T. Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates, 3rd Edition. New York, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. 1999.

Metcalf, J. A., Gallin, J. I., Nauseef, W. M. and Root, R. K. Laboratory Manual of Neutrophil Function. New York, Raven Press, Ltd. 1986.

Gallin, J. I. and Quie, P. G. Leukocyte Chemotaxis: Methods, Physiology and Clinical Implications. New York, Raven Press, Ltd. 1978.

JOURNAL REVIEWS

Violi F., Carnevale R., Loffredo L., Pignatelli, P., Gallin, J.I.: NADPH Oxidase-2 and Atherothrombosis: Insight from Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 37:218-225, 2017

Lekstrom-Himes, J.A. and Gallin, J.I. Immunodeficiency diseases caused by defects in phagocytes. New England J. Med., 343 (23); 1703-1714, 2001.

Gallin, J. I.: Interferon Gamma in the Management of Chronic Granulomatous Disease. Rev. Infec. Dis. 13:973-978, 1991.

Malech, H. L. and Gallin, J. I.: Neutrophils in human diseases. New Eng. J. Med., 317:687-694, 1987.

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Kuhns, D.B., Fink, D.L., Choi, U., Sweeney, C., Lau, K., Priel, D.L., Riva, D., Mendez, L., Uzel, G., Freeman, A.F., Olivier, K.N., Anderson, V.L., Currens, R., Mackley, V., Kang, A., Al-Adeli, M., Mace, E., Orange, J.S., Kang, E., Lockett, S.J., Chen, Steinbach, P.J., Hsu, A.P., Zarember, K.A., Malech, H.L., Gallin, J.I., Holland, S.M.  Cytoskeletal abnormalities and neutrophil dysfunction in WDR1 deficiency.  Blood.  128:2135-2143. 2016.

Sibley, C.T., Estwick, T., Zavodni, A., Huang, C.Y., Kwan, A.C., Soule, B.P., Loung Priel, D.A., Remaley, A.T., Rudman Spergel, A.K., Turkbey, E.B., Kuhns, D.B., Holland, S.M., Malech, H.L., Zarember, K.A., Bluemke, D.A., Gallin, J.I., Assessment of Atherosclerosis in Chronic Granulomatous Disease.  Circulation.  130:2031-2039. 2014.

Gallin J.I. The NIH Clinical Center and the future of clinical research. Nat Med. 17(10):1221-3. 2011.

Kuhns, D.B., Alvord, W.G., Heller, T., Feld, J.J., Pike, K.M., Marciano, B.E., Uzel, G., DeRavin, S.S., Priel, D.A., Soule, B.P., Zarember, K.A., Malech, H.L., Holland, S.M., Gallin, .JI. Residual NADPH oxidase and survival in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med. 363(27):2600-10. 2010.

Gallin, J.I., Alling, D.W., Malech H.L. and others. Itraconazole to Prevent Fungal Infections in Chronic Granulomatous Disease. N. Eng. J. Med. 348: 2416-2422. 2003.

Lekstrom-Himes, J.A., Dorman, S.E., Kopar, P., Holland, S.M., Gallin, J.I. Neutrophil-specific granule deficiency results from a novel mutation with loss of function of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer protein e. J. Exp. Med., 189:1847-1852, 1999.

Malech, H.L., Maples, P.B., et al and Gallin, J.I., Prolonged production of NADPH oxidase-corrected granulocytes after gene therapy of chronic granulomatous disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 94:12133-12138, 1997.

Jackson, S.H., Gallin, J.I., Holland, S.H. The p47phox mouse knock-out model chronic granulomatous disease. J. Exp. Med. 182:751-758, 1995.

Holland, S. M., Eisenstein, E. M., Kuhns, D. B., Turner, M. L., Fleisher, T. A., Strober, W., Gallin, J. I.: Treatment of refractory disseminated non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection with interferon-gamma: A preliminary report. New Eng J. Med. 330:1348-1355. 1994.

Gallin, J. I., Malech, H. L., Melnick, D. A., et al: A controlled trial of interferon gamma to prevent infection in chronic granulomatous disease. The international chronic granulomatous disease cooperative study group. N. Engl. J. Med. 324:509-516, 1991.

Leto, T. L., Lomax, K. J., Volpp, B. D., Nunoi, H., Sechler, J. M. G., Nauseef, W.M., Clark, R. A., Gallin, J. I., and Malech, H. L.: Cloning of a 67K neutrophil oxidase factor with similarity to a noncatalytic region of p60c-src. Science. 248:727-730, 1990

Lomax, K. J., Leto, T. L., Nunoi, H., Gallin, J. I. and Malech, H. L.: Recombinant 47-kD cytosol factor restores NADPH oxidase in chronic granulomatous disease. Science, 245:409-412, 1989.
Nunoi, H., Rotrosen, D., Gallin, J. I., and Malech, H. L.: Two forms of autosomal chronic granulomatous disease lack distinct neutrophil cytosol factors. Science. 242:1298-1300, 1988.

Sechler, J.M.G., Malech, H. L., White, C.J. and Gallin, J. I.: Recombinant human interferon- reconstitutes defective phagocyte function in patients with chronic granulomatous disease of childhood. Proceed. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA. 85:4874-4878, 1988.

Gallin, J. I. Degranulating stimuli decrease the negative surface charge and increase the adhesiveness of human neutrophils. J. Clin. Invest. 65:298-306, 1980.

Wright, D. G. and Gallin, J. I. Secretory responses of human neutrophils: Exocytosis of specific (secondary) granules by human neutrophils during adherence in vitro and during exudation in vivo. J. Immunol. 123:285-294, 1979.

Gallin, E. K. and Gallin, J. I.: Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages: Induction of transmembrane potential changes. J. Cell Biol. 75:277-289, 1977.

Malech, H. L., Root, R. K. and Gallin, J. I.: Structural analysis of human neutrophil migration: Centriole, microtubule and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis. J. Cell Biol. 75:666-693, 1977.